The continuous increase in bandwidth demand is rapidly pushing cloud data centers and network operators to significantly increase their data traffic capacity. The deployment of 400G Ethernet which is expected to start in the 2019/2020 timeframe will play a key role in this effort, and as with past network upgrades it requires the creation of a multi-sourced interoperable optical ecosystem. Various types of 400G Ethernet (“client-side”) optical interfaces have been or are being in the process of being standardized by the IEEE and MSAs. They include single-mode and multimode options, as well as interfaces running over parallel optics or over duplex optics (using WDM technology).
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